Propaganda dan Ucapan Kebencian Yang Memberi Legitimasi dan Pembenaran Genosida 1965-1966 (*dari sidang IPT 1965)
Editor(s) Allan Thompson
Publisher(s) Pluto Press, Fountain Publishers, IDRC
The news media played a crucial role in the 1994 Rwanda genocide: local media fuelled the killings, while the international media either ignored or seriously misconstrued what was happening.
This is the first book to explore both sides of that media equation. The book examines how local radio and print media were used as a tool of hate, encouraging neighbours to turn against each other. It also presents a critique of international media coverage of the cataclysmic events in Rwanda. Bringing together local reporters and commentators from Rwanda, high-profile Western journalists, and leading media theorists, this is the only book to identify and probe the extent of the media’s accountability. It also examines deliberations by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda on the role of the media in the genocide.
This book is a startling record of the dangerous influence that the media can have when used as a political tool or when news organizations and journalists fail to live up to their responsibilities. The authors put forward suggestions for the future by outlining how we can avoid censorship and propaganda, and by arguing for a new responsibility in media reporting. The book includes an opening statement from Kofi Annan and an introduction by Senator Roméo Dallaire.
unduh buku disini https://www.idrc.ca/en/book/media-and-rwanda-genocide
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Felicien Kabuga: The man behind Rwanda’s hate media | The Listening Post (Feature)
After 26 years on the run, Felicien Kabuga – the man accused of being one of the key figures behind Rwanda’s genocide – was arrested in Paris on May 16, 2020. A French court has ruled that he will be sent to Arusha, Tanzania to be tried in the United Nations’ International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. He has been indicted on two counts of crimes against humanity and seven counts of genocide, including “the direct and public incitement to commit genocide”. That count relates to his part in setting up and funding Radio Mille Collines, or RTLM, Rwanda’s infamous radio station that played a key role in the genocide.
RTLM started broadcasting in August 1993. As president of the station, Kabuga oversaw RTLM’s editorial agenda – an agenda that, from the outset, called for Rwanda’s majority Hutu population to “exterminate” the minority Tutsis.
“It was a radio station run by genocide ideologues and all day long it was used to insult and demonise Tutsis, to say that they were a cancer,” recalls Jean-Pierre Sagahutu, a Tutsi who told The Listening Post’s Nicholas Muirhead that he survived the genocide by hiding in a septic tank for two months and 15 days.
From the outset, one of RTLM’s key objectives was to radicalise the Hutu youth – they would come to be relied upon to carry out most of the killings. As a new station on the Rwandan airwaves, RTLM needed to recruit listeners and the strategy Kabuga and his co-founders put in place was to play popular music to attract the young. The songs would then be interspersed with hate messages about the Tutsis.
Tom Ndahiro is a Rwandan academic and expert on the genocide. He says that the music – which often contained lyrics of Hutu extremism – served a dual purpose because when the killings began, RTLM would continue playing the songs as a way of alleviating the perpetrators’ guilt.
“It’s evil genius, how do you entertain killers as a way of taking away the guilt? This is what RTLM did,” says Ndahiro.
RTLM also helped to coordinate the killings. Catherine Bond was one of the few international journalists in Rwanda during the early stages of the genocide. After joining a convoy of French troops travelling into the centre of Kigali, she witnessed groups of Rwandans lining the streets. They had been called out of their houses by RTLM to greet the French troops – but it was all a ploy.
“People had come out of their houses who were Tutsis in hiding,” remembers Bond, “and the Hutu militiamen had been able to identify them and had moved in and killed them.”
The genocide lasted 100 days, claiming the lives of nearly one million Tutsis and moderate Hutus. Kabuga, along with many of the perpetrators, was able to flee Rwanda. He managed to disappear from public life, however his legacy – and the legacy of RTLM – would spread across the region. Multiple governments have since raised the spectre of Rwanda – and the hate messages broadcast on Radio Mille Collines – as justification to clamp down on media freedom in their own countries.
History has already judged Felicien Kabuga. Now the courts will do the same.
Jean-Pierre Sagahutu – Genocide survivor
Catherine Bond – Former journalist
Tom Ndahiro – Genocide scholar
Rwanda : Vonis Genosida Pertama di Pengadilan KejahatanInternasional PBB, Memetik Pelajaran Untuk Genosida 1965-1966
GENOCIDE ARCHIVE OF RWANDA – ARSIP GENOSIDA RWANDA