Keterlibatan Malaysia Dalam Pusaran Intervensi dan Propaganda Negara-negara Barat Melawan Sukarno dan PKI di Indonesia, 1965-1966 (Imbas Konfrontasi Indonesia – Malaysia / NEKOLIM)

’Keep the Indonesian Pot Boiling’: Western Covert Intervention in Indonesia, October 1965–March 1966 – David Easter


This study examines the role played by the West in the destruction of the Indonesian communist party, the PKI, and the removal of the radical Indonesian president, Sukarno, in 1965–66. After the murder of six generals in October 1965 the Indonesian army massacred thousands of communists and seized power from Sukarno. The United States secretly helped the army in this period by providing intelligence, arms, medicines and radios and by giving assurances that Britain would not attack Indonesia while the army was suppressing the PKI. The US, Britain, Australia and Malaysia also used propaganda to encourage hostility in Indonesia towards the PKI. The article assesses the impact of Western covert intervention and concludes that Western propaganda may have encouraged the mass killings of the communists.



“By the summer of 1965 there was a consensus amongst Britain, the United States, Australia and Malaysia, that Sukarno was an implacable enemy, threatening the stability of the region and leading his country to communism. Both the British and the Americans believed that the longer Sukarno remained in power the greater chance there was of a communist takeover in Indonesia after his death.8 The Western powers responded to this threat in a similar way: by using propaganda and covert action. For the three Commonwealth powers the immediate problem was Confrontation. Britain and Australia had committed substantial forces to defend Malaysia but for political reasons they were reluctant to openly retaliate for the Indonesian guerrilla raids. If, for example, the British and Australians bombed targets in Indonesia it would confirm to the Indonesian public Sukarno’s warnings about the threat posed by the Nekolim. An open war between Britain, Australia and Indonesia could strengthen the position of the PKI and damage the prestige of the army, hastening moves towards a communist takeover. The Commonwealth allies therefore had to rely on covert pressures to make Indonesia halt Confrontation; British and Australian soldiers secretly crossed the jungle border to attack guerrilla units inside Indonesia and Britain and Malaysia gave aid to rebel groups in the outer Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Sulawesi

In addition, the British and Malaysians used covert propaganda to erode support for Confrontation and encourage disunity in Indonesia.10 In February 1965 the Information Research Department of the Foreign Office, which specialized in unattributable propaganda, set up the South East Asia Monitoring Unit in Singapore to carry out propaganda directed at Indonesian audiences.11 London instructed that the propaganda from Singapore should undermine the will of the Indonesian armed forces to attack Malaysia, by representing that their real enemies were the PKI and communist China. Propaganda should also ‘Discredit any potential successor to Sukarno … whose accession to power might benefit the PKI’.12 In July the Foreign Office decided to step up its propaganda operations by appointing a Political Warfare Coordinator in Singapore. Norman Reddaway, the Regional Information Officer in Beirut, was selected for the position, although Reddaway would not take up the post until November.13 Malaysian propaganda against Sukarno and the PKI was disseminated overtly, through Radio Malaysia’s external broadcasts to Indonesia, and covertly, through a ‘black’ radio station, ‘Radio Free Indonesia’, which masqueraded as the work of Indonesian e´migre´s.14


simak pula


[unduh] Conflict and Confrontation in South East Asia, 1961–1965

Britain, the United States, Indonesia and the Creation of Malaysia

Matthew Jones



Sukarno’s confrontation With Malaysia: January-November 1964

(CIA Documents  1-88)



Ganyang Nekolim : Mozaik Sejarah Konfrontasi Indonesia – Malaysia 1963-1966 *terlampir dokumen-dokumen CIA terkait konfrontasi Sukarno vs Malaysia ini


Simak 1700 ‘entry’ lainnya pada link berikut

Daftar Isi Perpustakaan Kejahatan Atas Kemanusiaan dan Genosida 1965-1966

Road to Justice : State Crimes after Oct 1st 1965 (Jakartanicus)


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Definisi yang diusulkan D. Nersessian (2010) untuk amandemen/ optional protocol Konvensi Anti-Genosida (1948) dan Statuta Roma (2000) mengenai Pengadilan Kejahatan Internasional. (disalin dari Harry Wibowo)

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