This paper discusses the significant role of the Indonesian Communist movement in the formation of Jose Maria Sison as a leading Filipino Marxist radical and its possible influence on the founding of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) in 1968. After a study fellowship in Indonesia in 1962, Sison published pioneering translations of Chairil Anwar’s poetry and popularized matters pertaining to Indonesia during the Sukarno era through the journal Progressive Review. He also had a memorable and intellectually fruitful friendship with the Indonesian nationalist guerrilla and University of the Philippines graduate student Bakri Ilyas. A small but persistent controversy on the alleged plagiarization by Sison of Indonesian radical sources in the late 1960s and early 1970s will then be addressed through systematic textual analysis. The paper will propose some general theses on authorship, modularity, adaptation, and dissemination of texts and ideas in twentieth-century radical movements. Finally, the article will assess the impact of the 1965–66 massacre in Indonesia on the revolutionary ideas and practice of the CPP.
Petikan terkait Bakri Ilyas
Bakri Ilyas (see Fig. 1)2) survived the 1965–66 massacre but spent the next 10 years of his life in jail. When the massacre occurred in 1965, he was already in Indonesia and in contact with his former comrades in the Indonesian army who were pro-Sukarno and pro-PKI (ibid.). He came under suspicion from the Suharto group, was arrested twice, and was jailed 10 years without trial during the Suharto period. Upon his release in 1976, his status as an “ex-Tapol” (former political prisoner) made it difficult for him to find employment. He led the organization Paguyuban Korban Orde Baru (Pakorba, Association of the Victims of the New Order) in fighting for justice and social rehabilitation for former prisoners and victims of the Suharto era (Bakri 1998). During the early 1990s, he resumed communications with Sison but was no longer able to travel. In 2003, Bakri was possibly the first and the only ex-Tapol who was buried with military rites at the Kalibata Heroes Cemetery. The probable reason for this is that his “illustrious military career overshadowed his status as a 1965 former political prisoner” (Adam 2005, 268). He had been decorated with three medals by the Republic of Indonesia for his exemplary military service: the Bintang Gerilya (Guerilla Star), Satyalancana PK I, and the Satyalancana PK II (ibid.). According to Asvi Warman Adam:
While in the Philippines, he befriended progressive Filippino [sic] students. These friendships formed the grounds for his detention without trial from 1966 to 1976. According to one source, he had been a member of the Indonesian Scholars Association which was affiliated to the PKI. (ibid.)
In his tribute to Bakri, Sison wrote:
There is not enough space here for me to state everything that I know about Bakri as an outstanding Indonesian patriot, revolutionary and internationalist. But I pledge to make sure that his writings within my access and his deeds within the range of my knowledge will go into historical record. (Sison and De Lima 2003)
petikan kajian PSR (Jose Maria Sison) dan MIRI (DN Aidit)
Masyarakat Indonesia dan Revolusi Indonesia (Soal-soal Pokok Revolusi Indonesia) – D.N. Aidit (Juli 1957)
Reflections on the 1965 Massacre in Indonesia
By Prof. Jose Maria Sison
International League of Peoples’ Struggle
18 December 2005
The concluding chapter of Tan Malaka’s (1897–1949) large philosophical work entitled Madilog: Materialisme, Dialektika, Logika contains interesting reflections on the extent and scope of the future liberated and sovereign Indonesian nation and on the concept of “Indonesian” heroism and nationality. However, most striking of all is the uppermost position he allots in his schema for Philippine national heroes such as Dr. Jose Rizal, the patriot and writer, and Andres Bonifacio, the leader and founder of the Katipunan, the most successful Philippine revolutionary anti-colonial organization.
Boundless revolution : global maoism and communist movements in southeast Asia, 1949-1979Galway, Matthew2017
Khususnya Part Three—Maoism in the Coral Triangle Chapter Six: Maoist China and Communism in the Philippines and Indonesia
The Philippine View of Indonesian Independence: As Reported in Philippine Newspapers1 Augusto V. De Viana
Indonesians also had an influence on the Philippines. The seeds of communism were sowed in the islands by a man named Tan Malaka. Tan Malaka arrived in the Philippines on July 20, 1925 from Hong Kong. Passing himself off as a Filipino musician named Jorge Fuentes, Tan Malaka slipped through Philippine immigration with six Indonesian refugees who had fake papers. In his two years in the Philippines, he met peasant and labor leaders among whom was Crisanto Evangelista who became Chairman of the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas in 1938. Tan Malaka helped pursue plans of the Philippine labor Congress to send delegates to the Trade Conference in Canton, China which was sponsored by the Red International Organization of Labor Unions, a subsidiary of the COMINTERN (Communist International) which was tasked to spread communism worldwide. Tan Malaka also met other Filipino leaders like Quezon, Claro M. Recto who became a senator, Jose Abad Santos who became Chief Justice of the Philippines, Ramon Fernandez, the Mayor of Manila and Apolinario de los Santos, President of the University of the Philippines and his brother, Mariano. Finally Tan Malaka was arrested for illegal entry and deported to Amoy, China (Suradji, 1983).
Regardless of his political ideology, Tan Malaka may be considered as the first Indonesian to make deliberate contacts with the Filipinos although his objectives did not reflect the diplomatic objectives of Indonesia. Before him, Philippine-Indonesian relations began as informal and unplanned interactions between the peoples of the two countries. Though he did not play his maximum role as a communist organizer, he was considered as an ardent nationalist who had incurred the wrath of the alien colonizer of his country. Tan Malaka appeared to have succeeded in his role though it was not prominently mentioned. By the time he was caught by the Americans and deported, communism was already well rooted in the minds of Filipino labor leaders and that international communism was flexing its newly acquired muscles throughout the Far East (Suradji, 1983: 114). According to Apolinario de los Santos who provided living quarters for Malaka said “Tan Malaka’s crime was that of being a patriot – a nationalist of the first order but never a Bolshevik” (Suradji, 1983: 134-135).
artikel Ramon Guillermo lainnya :
The Rise of the Dunia Modern (Modern World) in Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s Bumi Manusia (This Earth of Mankind)
Abstract The first novel in Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s (1925-2006) Buru Tetralogy, titled Bumi Manusia (This Earth of Mankind, 1980), is set in late nineteenth-century Indonesia and is mostly about the rise and emergence of the notions of the modern world (dunia modern) and of the nation (bangsa) and nationalism in the young hero Minke. This study proposes the use of Pramoedya’s novel as a preliminary bounded corpus for exploring the semantic domains of the related terms dunia (world), bumi (earth) in Bahasa Indonesia. In the novel, the term dunia appears primarily in the phrase dunia modern (modern world), which is depicted as inseparable from its technology, science and capital. Bumi (earth) on the other hand, plays a crucial conceptual role in the novel, in the oft-repeated phrase Bumi Manusia (earth of mankind). The study will try to show how these two terms, dunia modern and bumi manusia, display a complex and often contradictory relationship in their use within the novel.
Revolusi! Rebolusyon!: A Filipino Revisiting of Benedict Anderson’s “The Languages of Indonesian Politics” (1966) Ramon Guillermo Dept. of Filipino and Philippine Literature College of Arts and Letters University of the Philippines
Info lain terkait Bakri Ilyas :
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Road to Justice : State Crimes after Oct 1st 1965 (Jakartanicus)
Definisi yang diusulkan D. Nersessian (2010) untuk amandemen/ optional protocol Konvensi Anti-Genosida (1948) dan Statuta Roma (2000) mengenai Pengadilan Kejahatan Internasional. (disalin dari Harry Wibowo)