Peran Psikolog (Politisasi Psikologi) Dalam Orkestrasi Genosida Politik 1965-1966

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Kajian Psikologi Dalam Studi Genosida dan Peran Psikologi Dalam Rekonsiliasi dan Rekonstruksi Pasca Genosida (Studi Kasus Genosida di Indonesia, Rwanda, Holocaust, Lain-lain) 

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Jadi, apa yang bisa dikatakan tentang keberadaan psikologi dalam operasi besar-besaran pasca-G30S sebagaimana isi dokumen Pengadilan Rakyat Internasional? Jawabannya barangkali ditentukan oleh satu dari tiga kemungkinan isi hati psikologi kala itu. Pertama, komunitas psikologi terpaksa abai terhadap prinsip benar dan salah betapa pun mereka tahu tentang itu. Begitu kuatnya tekanan penguasa masa itu boleh jadi membuat kalangan psikologi tak berdaya untuk bersikap istikamah, yakni konsisten pada kerja pemanusiaan.

Kedua, psikologi tak ambil pusing pada bagaimana pengklasifikasian yang mereka susun dimanfaatkan oleh penguasa. Bagi mereka, kerja psikologi berakhir setelah seluruh tahanan berhasil dipetakan ke kategori A atau B atau C. Habis perkara. Setelah itu, bukan urusan psikologi.

Atau, ketiga, meskipun psikologi paham tentang implikasi dari klasifikasi yang mereka susun, kesediaan mereka untuk terlibat dalam kampanye pasca-G30S itu adalah dalam rangka mendompleng dan menikmati ke mana arah angin bertiup. Allahu alam.

Peran Psikologi dalam Pembersihan Pasca-G30S – Reza Indragiri Amriel

Alumnus Program Psikologi Forensik the University of Melbourne

 

Prisoners were said to be subject to a screening process to determine whether they belonged to one of other of the categories and/or the proscribed groups. 52

As to how the authorities determined the appropriate classification for detainees, the Tribunal was presented with a written report and oral testimony by Dr. Saskia Wieringa regarding the procedures adopted for psychological testing of prisoners to determine classification, which “came to be a substitute for law.” Further, she documented collaboration in this process between Indonesian and Dutch psychologists.53

An overall figure for those detained (known as tapol, abbreviation for tahanan politik, political prisoners) is often given as one million. Official statistics began to be issued in the mid-1970s of the numbers in detention and of those who had been released (most of the latter were designated as ET (ex-tapol), and they and their families continued (and in some respects continue today) to suffer from loss of civil rights, denial of the right to free movement or to work in certain fields etc.). By 1975-6, a total variously stated as 500,000, 600,000, or 750,000 was officially stated to have been arrested and detained in the years immediately following 1965. In one such statement, Foreign Minister Adam Malik said in April 1975 that:

Immediately after the abortive coup in 1965, we began in 1966 to seize people for interrogation who had been connected with the coup. The number at that time was about 600,000. On the basis of our prevailing laws, our religious conscience and our humanitarian conscience, we immediately began to discover whether people were guilty or not. In that process, from a total of 600,000 there are now only about 20,000 left, and they fall into various categories. These people will be brought to trial. Those who already have been found not guilty have been released. As others are found not guilty, they too will be released.54

**53 Saskia Wieringa, “Testing of prisoners: collaboration between Indonesian and Dutch psychologists,”submitted to the IPT on 11 November 2015, p. 4

Periksa bagian b) Imprisonment hal 37-40

FINAL REPORT OF THE IPT 1965 : Findings and Documents of the International People’s Tribunal on Crimes against Humanity Indonesia 1965

Periksa juga pernyataan Saskia Wieringa salah satu saksi ahli dalam sidang IPT ‘65

Pada bulan Oktober 1973, Pangkopkamtib kala itu, Jenderal Sumitro, mengunjungi Pulau Buru untuk melihat dari dekat para tapol dan mengetahui kehidupan dan perkembangan jiwa mereka. Untuk maksud itulah Jenderal Sumitro membawa serta beberapa psikolog seperti Fuad Hassan, Saparinah Sadli dan Susmaliah Suwondo dari Universitas Indonesia (UI). Kehadiran para Psikolog itu dimaksudkan agar dapat mempelajari psikologi para tahanan, cara berpikir terhadap ideologi komunisme, juga seberapa pengaruh pendidikan agama yang diberikan disana.

Tetapi satu hal penting lainnya yang ingin dilakukan oleh Jenderal Sumitro adalah: menemui Pram. Nama Pram inilah yang mengusik hatinya karena pada saat ia berkunjung ke Eropa, orang-orang disana mencecarnya dengan pertanyaan-pertanyaan tentang Pram. Akhirnya  iapun bertemu dengan Pram.

“Pak Pramoedya, saya dengar dari kolega Bapak, para wartawan yang bersama saya kesini, bahwa Bapak marah-marah, berontak, putus-asa. Bapak bahkan mengatakan bahwa di sini tidak ada harapan, sehingga Bapak berkata mati sekarang atau besok sama saja,” kata Jenderal Sumitro.

selengkapnya PRAMOEDYA ANANTA TOER, MENYUSURI JEJAK SENGSARA UNTUK KEABADIAN – Titus Jonathan

Their involvement was used to control the prisoners and the population’ mentality; gave a scientific legitimation for government’s action internationally and domestically; and proved the politicization of science in executing the practice of government.”

Abstract

The study investigates the rationalities and implications of the use of psychol-ogy in Indonesia’s detention camp during New Order Era. The historical event on 30 September 1965 led to mass arrest and killings of people who accused as communists. The tendency in complying capitalistic development agenda in Suharto regime resulted to long-term incarceration for the prison-ers. Psychology was allegedly involved in this process. The study provides the perspectives of the actors; the government, the ex-prisoners, and the psy-chologists in the attempt to understand the complexity of psychologists’ role in the program. I applied Foucault’s concept of governmentality to look at how ex-perts’ power/knowledge are critical in the implementation of development practices. The data was obtained through three data collection methods; sec-ondary data, oral history, and interviews. The evidence shows that psycholo-gists involved in the design of indoctrination programs and the development of psycho-tests for the political prisoners which later used as screening tests for particular groups in the society. Their involvement was used to control the prisoners and the population’ mentality; gave a scientific legitimation for government’s action internationally and domestically; and proved the politicization of science in executing the practice of government.

 

The Politicization of Psychology: The Role of Psychologists in Indonesia’s Detention Camps during New Order Era – Tesis Dyah Ayu Kartika

 

 

 

Lain-lain :

 

Mengulik Sisi Psikologis Korban Tragedi 1965

https://psikologi.ugm.ac.id/mengulik-sisi-psikologis-korban-tragedi-1965/

 

 

PENELITIAN STUDI KASUS FENOMENOLOGI PERSEPSI KEADILAN PELAKU PEMBUNUHAN ANGGOTA PKI 1965 – Kukuh Setyo Pambudi

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Kajian Psikologi Dalam Studi Genosida dan Peran Psikologi Dalam Rekonsiliasi dan Rekonstruksi Pasca Genosida (Studi Kasus Genosida, Rwanda, Holocaust, Lain-lain)

simak 1500 ‘entry’ lainnya pada link berikut

Daftar Isi Perpustakaan Genosida 1965-1966

Road to Justice : State Crimes after Oct 1st 1965 (Jakartanicus)

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Definisi yang diusulkan D. Nersessian (2010) untuk amandemen/ optional protocol Konvensi Anti-Genosida (1948) dan Statuta Roma (2000) mengenai Pengadilan Kejahatan Internasional. (disalin dari Harry Wibowo)

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